By R. N. Perham (auth.), Prof. Mulchand S. Patel, Dr. Thomas E. Roche, Dr. Robert A. Harris (eds.)
Found in all organisms, the alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes have important roles in mobile metabolism and are significant websites of legislation. the certainty of the association, functionality and legislation of those necessary multienzyme complexes has been drastically complex by way of experiences utilizing molecular biology and biophysical recommendations. even supposing those enzyme structures have a few positive factors in universal, their range in pleasant distinct organism - or tissue - particular roles is actually outstanding. those platforms have clinical significance in components starting from defects in rules (linked to diabetes, center disorder, weight problems, foodstuff defects), to inherited illnesses (inborn blunders, maple syrup urine illness) to obtained immune illnesses (primary biliary cirrhosis). This ebook brings jointly wide-ranging fresh findings at the structure(function relationships, gene law, and genetic defects of the alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes, specifically the pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. a wide selection of experimental ways including new effects provided during this booklet should still function a source for starting to confirmed investigators within the box in addition to scientists who're attracted to mitochondria, dehydrogenases, kinases, phosphatases, lipoic acid, thiamine pyrophosphate, and enzyme complexes.
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Extra info for Alpha-Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Complexes
Increases in the proportion of the L2 domains of the E260 core that have lipoyl domains in the reduced form due to the reversible E3 reaction responding to increases NAOH:NAO+ ratio enhance the rate of kinase inactivation of POC by up to 80% (indicated by change of the kinase from a K state to a K* state). Due to the EI reaction or to the reversible E2-catalyzed transacetylation reaction, kinase activity is enhanced by ~ 300% by acetylation of <25% of the L2 domains. This highly activated form of the kinase is indicated by a change to K** state.
Acetyl-CoA is the substrate of the citrate acid cycle, CAC, and NADH is produced both by p-oxidation pathway and by CAC. The proportion of PDC in the inactive form, PDCb, is markedly enhanced by NADH and acetyl-CoA stimulating kinase activity while NADH reduces Elb phosphatase activity. These occur by the sensitive signal translation mechanisms described in this review. Regulation in the opposite direction results from direct effects of pyruvate and ADP on Ela kinase activity and Ca2+ on Elb phosphatase activity.
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