Advanced Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery by C. Huang

By C. Huang

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2005a). , 2011). , 2010). , 2011). , 2002). Furthermore the gene expression of this protein, unlike that of IL-1, in omental adipose tissue of humans correlates with waist circumference or BMI of obese women (Fain, 2011). IL-1Ra is a physiological antagonist of IL-1 since it competes with the IL-1 receptors for the available IL-1 and is sold as an injectable drug [anakinra] for the reduction of immune-mediated inflammatory conditions (Goldbach-Mansky, 2009). The elevated circulating levels of IL-1Ra that are seen in obesity as well as enhanced formation in adipose tissue in obesity are perhaps the best evidence that IL-1 formation is enhanced in obesity.

2009). , 2009). Fain (2010) also found a positive correlation between BMI and the release of LPL by explants of human omental fat incubated in vitro. The available data indicate that LPL protein expression in adipose tissue, but not the circulating levels, correlate positively with obesity. 21 Macrophage migration inhibitory factor [MIF] MIF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in many inflammatory disorders (Donn and Ray, 2004; Kleemann and Bucala, 2010). Both MIF and MCP-1 seem to be especially important in macrophage recruitment into adipose tissue.

22 Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1] MCP-1 is also known as chemokine CCL2 and is a mononuclear cell chemoattractant protein that is a pro-inflammatory adipokine (Frangogiannis, 2004). , 2005). , (2002) or Fain (2011) found any effect of obesity on circulating levels of MCP-1. , (2009) reported that MCP-1 and IL-6, but not RANTES, were released in vivo by human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue to a far greater extent in individuals with a BMI of 43 as compared to controls with a BMI of 25.

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