By Ilkka Savolainen, Markus Tähtinen (auth.), Pekka Kauppi, Pia Anttila, Kaarle Kenttämies (eds.)
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The application of manure may also be continued throughout the year. 38 Raina Niskanen, Simo Keranen and Riitta Pipatti Industrial Emissions Fertilizer and ammonia production plants are the main sources of industrial emissions of ammonia (Buijsman et al. 1986). Industry emits much less ammonia than does agriculture. The industrial emissions of ammonia in Finland are estimated to be about 1000 tons of nitrogen per year. According to the Ministry of the Environment, the largest local sources of industrial ammonia emission are in Uusikaupunki (about 400 tons nitrogen per year) and Kokkola and Oulu (each about 200 tons of nitrogen per year).
7 the effectiveness of the reduction measures is shown. In the calculation case without restrictions the nitrogen oxide emissions would be 400 kt NO z in the year 2010. A reduction of about 57% is obtained with the restrictions. Figure 7 shows also the development of the nitrogen oxide emissions for the two other Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide Emission Scenarios for Finland 17 energy use scenarios: maximum natural gas use scenario and strong energy conservation scenario, both with the assumed emission reduction measures.
Draining of urine into a well with a tight cover reduces the loss of ammonia. Then less than 10% of the nitrogen is lost during an 8-month period (Iversen 1924). In Finland, about half the farms using litter in the storage of manure have a urine well, nearly all of which (94%) are covered (Kemppainen 1985). In the litter method, the amount of nitrogen lost during the storage of manure is estimated to be 25%, the amount of nitrogen being lost from urine in a tight well to be 10% (Keranen and Niskanen 1987).