Access to Knowledge in the Age of Intellectual Property by Gaëlle Krikorian, Amy Kapczynski

By Gaëlle Krikorian, Amy Kapczynski

On the finish of the 20th century, highbrow estate rights collided with lifestyle. Expansive copyright legislation and electronic rights administration applied sciences sought to close down new different types of copying and remixing made attainable by way of the net. foreign legislation increasing patent rights threatened the lives of thousands of individuals around the globe residing with HIV/AIDS by way of restricting their entry to affordable accepted medications. for many years, governments have tightened the grip of highbrow estate legislation on the bidding of data industries; yet lately, teams have emerged world wide to problem this wave of enclosure with a brand new counter-politics of "access to knowledge" or "A2K." They contain software program programmers who took to the streets to defeat software program patents in Europe, AIDS activists who pressured multinational pharmaceutical businesses to allow copies in their medications to be bought in bad international locations, subsistence farmers protecting their rights to nutrients safeguard or entry to agricultural biotechnology, and school scholars who created a brand new "free culture" move to protect the electronic commons. Access to wisdom within the Age of highbrow Property maps this rising box of activism as a chain of ancient moments, options, and ideas. It gathers one of the most very important thinkers and advocates within the box to make the stakes and methods at play during this new area noticeable and the phrases of highbrow estate legislation intelligible of their political implications all over the world. an artistic Commons variation of this paintings might be freely to be had online.

Contributors: Ahmed Abdel Latif, Philippe Aigrain, Jeffrey Atteberry, Yochai Benkler, Yann Moulier Boutaing, Carlos Correa, Laura DeNardis, Sarah Deutsch, Peter Drahos, Hala Essalmawi, Rick Falkvinge, Sean Flynn, Vera Franz, Spring Gombe, Anil Gupta, Ellen 't Hoen, Charles Igwe, Eddan Katz, Kannikar Kijtiwatchakul, Gaëlle Krikorian, Lawrence Liang, Jiraporn Limpananont, James Love, Leena Menghaney, Viviana Munoz, Sisule F. Musungu, HeeSeob Nam, Chan Park, Eloan Pinheiro dos Santos, Achal Prabhala, Onno Purbo, Manon Ress, Caroline Rossini, Susan promote, Sangeeta Shashikant, Roberto Verzola, Jo Walsh

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The public domain thus has a differential value for those who have limited financial means. 60 the commons The commons is another concept critical to the attempt by A2K theorists to construct a collective object for their politics. It draws upon the history of property in land and more particularly upon the enclosure of communally managed field and forest resources in Europe. 62 It is not free of the requirement of permission (or, necessarily, of price), but demands permission from a collective, rather than an individual.

How precisely, though, should we understand the difference between knowledge and information? ”109 Thus, information is objective and external, while knowledge is the capacity to use information to create new information or to use information to generate technical effects in the world (knowledge as “know-how”). This is narrower than the definition of knowledge that we might derive from etymology or contemporary usage. ”110 The English word “knowledge” corresponds to the German kennen and French connaître, designating a kind of understanding that comes from the senses.

The A2K movement valorizes the space of both the public domain and the commons, and yet as we’ve seen, these two spaces are governed in importantly different ways. The commons is controlled, often through the use of intellectual property law itself. The public domain is instead a space beyond intellectual property law, where no one has the right to extract permission or price. Can the A2K movement be committed to both? If so, this would require restructuring how the commons and public domain are each understood.

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