By Matthew J. Goff
The knowledge culture of historical Israel, represented within the Hebrew Bible through Proverbs, activity, and Ecclesiastes and within the Apocrypha through Ben Sira and the knowledge of Solomon, is usually well-attested within the texts from Qumran. 4QInstruction (1Q26, 4Q415 418, 4Q423), the biggest knowledge textual content of the useless Sea Scrolls, is taken into account a sapiential textual content essentially as a result of its particular and insistent pedagogical nature. To make this important knowledge textual content extra broadly on hand, this quantity bargains a severe variation, translation, and remark at the major fragments of 4QInstruction. It examines specific texts of 4QInstruction in addition to broader concerns, together with its date, style, major subject matters, and position in moment Temple Judaism. eventually, as a way to contextualize this pivotal paintings, 4QInstruction s courting to the sapiential and apocalyptic traditions can also be explored.
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Strugnell and Harrington 1999, 49; Rey 2009a, 141. 4Q415 2 II 39 rial in 4Q415 2 ii provides a clear rationale as to why the woman would treat herself in a hostile manner. The line is better understood as attesting some form of conflict between her and another woman. One could posit either polygamy or divorce as the underlying problem. 26 Divorce may be at issue in line 4, as mentioned above. 28 Line 5, if interpreted in terms of divorce, would provide a rationale as to why a woman hates the female addressee.
In several sayings Proverbs associates the behavior it advocates with the poor and not with the wealthy. Proverbs 15:17, for example, reads, “Better is a dinner of vegetables where love is than a fatted ox and hatred with it” (cf. 17:1; 18:23). 89. Contra Strugnell and Harrington 1999, 21. 90. Adams 2010, 582–83. 91. Van der Toorn 2007. While Ben Sira praises the scribe over menial professionals, he does grant that some poor people are intelligent (10:23; 38:24–34; cf. Qoh 10:15). INTRODUCTION 27 issues or ritual purity, and that the intended audience includes women (4Q415 2 ii).
In 4Q415 2 ii 1 a woman is told to honor someone in the same way she would her own father. Unfortunately, the object of the imperative has survived only in traces. It is not fully clear whom she should honor. 4 This is semantically attractive and consistent with the theme 2. Goff 2007, 49–53; Wright 2004b, 252–53; Wold 2005b, 85. 3. Orthographically it is possible to read כבדו. ” See Rey 2009a, 140. 4. Wold 2005b, 200. 4Q415 2 II 33 that the wife moves from under the authority of her father to that of her husband (see commentary to 4Q416 2 iv).